PRODUCTIVITY GAP BY GENDER AMONG RICE FARMERS IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA
Keywords:Gender, Yield, Gap, Rice, Farmers, Nigeria
The present research used a field survey data of 2020 rice cropping season to determine yield gap by gender among rice farmers in North-Central Nigeria. A total of 376 farmers were drawn from a sampling frame through a multi-stage sampling technique and a structured questionnaire coupled interview schedule was used for information elicitation. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The empirical evidences showed that most of the farmers have negative attitudes towards risk and this owes to poor resource capital base, thus hinders cultivation of economic holdings. Besides, women farmers were more averse to risk than the men farmers which owes largely to gender discrimination and stereotype induced by culture and religion, thus hindered their access to and control over productive resources. Furthermore, neither gender nor risk attitudinal differentials have impact on the average yield of the farmers. However, it was established that yield gap was largely due to gender and risk attitudinal discriminations. Therefore, the study enjoins the farmers, especially the women folk to harness social capital viz. participation in co-operative association- pecuniary advantages, thus enable them to have access to and control over productive. In addition, the policymakers are advised to create an enabling agricultural environment for the women folk viz. gender budget mainstreaming, thus tackling women farmersâ€™ susceptibility to the vicious cycle of poverty.
Alderman, H.(2008).Managing risk to increase efficiency and reduce poverty. World Development Report 2008. Washington, DC:World Bank.
Amber, P., Behrman, J.A. and Quisumbing, A.R.(2014).A review of empirical evidence on gender differences in nonland agricultural inputs, technology, and services in developing countries. Gender in Agriculture. Pp 145-186.
Averett, S.L., Laura, M.A. and Saul, D.H.(2018).The Oxford Handbook of Women and the Economy. Oxford University Press.
Blinder, A.S.(1973).Wage discrimination: reduced form and structural estimates. Journal of Human Resources, 8(4):436-455.
Charness, G.., Uri, G. and Alex, I.(2013).Experimental methods: eliciting risk preferences. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 87:43-51.
Cotula, L.(2006).Gender and law: women's rights in agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization.
Di Falco, S. and Chavas, J-P.(2009).On crop biodiversity, risk exposure, and food security in the highlands of Ethiopia. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 91(3):599-611
Digital Green (no date). Digital Green. Accessed from www.digitalgreen.org.
Dohmen, T., Armin, F., David, H. and Uwe, S.(2012).The intergenerational transmission of risk and trust attitudes. The Review of Economic Studies, 79(2):645-677.
Dohmen, T., Armin, F., David, H., Uwe, S., JÃ¼rgen, S. and Gert, G.W.(2011).Individual risk attitudes: measurement, determinants, and behavioral consequences. Journal of the European Economic Association, 9(3):522-550.
Kaiser, H.F.(1974).An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36.
Ligon, E. and Elisabeth, S.(2008).Estimating the effects of aggregate agricultural growth on the distribution of expenditures.
Lokshin, M. and Sajaia, Z.(2011).Impact of interventions on discrete outcomes: Maximum likelihood estimation of the binary choice models with binary endogenous regressors. The Stata Journal, 11(3): 11-21.
Marwa, B.(2014).Estimation of gender wage differentials in Egypt using Oaxaca Decomposition technique. Paper presented at the 34th annual MEEA meeting in conjunction with the Allied Social Science Association (ASSA), Philadelphia, January 3-6, 2014, Pp. 1-26
Oaxaca, R.(1973).Male-female wage differentials in urban labor markets. International Economic Review, 9:693-709.
Olayemi, I.K., Idris, B., Ejima, I.A.A., Adeniyi, K., Ukubuiwe, A.C. and Isah, B.(2014).The climate of north-central Nigeria and potential influence on mosquito (Diptera culicidae) vectorial capacity for disease transmission. Global Journal of Multidisciplinary and Applied Sciences, 2(2):26-31
Revathy, N., Thilagavathi, M. and Surendran, A.(2020).A comparative analysis of rural-urban migrants and non-migrants in the selected region of Tamil Nadu, India. Economic Affairs, 65(1): 23-30.
Sadiq, M.S., Singh, I.P. and Ahmad, M.M.(2020a).Rice yield differentials between IFAD participating and non-participating farmers in Nigeriaâ€™s Niger State. Economic Affairs, 65(4): 01-15
Sadiq, M.S., Singh, I.P., Ahmad, M.M. and Kumari, V.(2020b).Effect of gender on income gap among fish farmers in Nigeriaâ€™s Kogi State. AtatÃ¼rk Ãœniversitesi KadÄ±n AraÅŸtÄ±rmalarÄ± Dergisi (AtatÃ¼rk University Journal of Womanâ€™s Studies), 2(2): 27-45
Sepahvand, M.H.(2019).Agricultural productivity in Burkina Faso: The role of gender and risk attitudes. Working Paper 3, Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Tobin, J.(1958).Estimation of relationship for limited dependent variables. Econometrica, 26: 26-36
Wang, A., Nianogo, R.A. and Arah, O.A. (2017).G-computation of average treatment effects on the treated and the untreated. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 17(3): 1-5.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).