Agricultural Socio-Economics Journal <h3><img src="" alt="" width="1025" height="293" /></h3> <p><strong>ACCREDITED by Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia, <a title="AGRISE Acredited " href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">No.28/E/KPT/2019</a>, September 26, 2019</strong></p> <p>Agricultural Socio-Economics Journal (AGRISE) is a peer-reviewed journal which is published regularly for the purpose of advancing the scientific studies in the area of agriculture development, trade of agricultural commodities, agribusiness development, rural development, rural social and communication studies, and other related areas.</p> <p>The editorial goal is to provide a forum for strengthening better insight in the area of socio-economics of agriculture and other related issues all over the world.</p> <p>The journal is published by Faculty of Agriculture University of Brawijaya Indonesia in collaboration with <a title="PERHEPI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Indonesia Agricultural Economic Association (PERHEPI)</a> since 2011. All papers published by AGRISE are open to a reader and anyone can download or read our online journal without payment or subscription.</p> <p>We are glad to inform that AGRISE has been indexed by <a title="AGRISE Indexed by DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a>.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> </ol> (Sujarwo) (Wasis Rizki Widyanto) Tue, 10 Oct 2023 03:24:56 +0000 OJS 60 IMPACT OF CASHEW GRAFTED PLANTS ADOPTION ON PRODUCTIVITY AND HOUSEHOLD WELFARE IN BENIN <p>In Benin, cashew nuts represent a socio-economic and strategic interest for farmers and the government. New technologies, such as grafted plants, have been introduced to improve this crop's productivity. This study used the Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method to assess the impact of adopting cashew grafted plants on land productivity and farm household welfare in Benin. Data were collected from 200 cashew farmers, including 57 adopters and 143 non-adopters of grafted plants. The results revealed that the improvement in cashew nut yield due to adopting grafted cashew plants varies between 231 and 242 kg/ha respectively for Nearest Neighbor and Kernel matching algorithm. Nevertheless, this adoption requires important investments that contribute to increasing agricultural expenses. The results also revealed that grafted plants positively and significantly cashew income and total household income. Grafted cashew plants adopters have an additional 73 755 CFA per hectare cashew income. Total household income also improved by 110 000 CFA per hectare. However, the increase in income needs to be sufficiently large to reduce the proportion of poor among adopters significantly. These results prove that increasing cashew nut production in Benin and improving farmers' welfare will require developing cashew nut planting materials capable of boosting cashew nut productivity. To this end, implementing and diffusing grafted cashew plants throughout the territory requires significant investments to improve cashew productivity and farmers welfare.</p> Hinnou Cossi Léonard, Bonou-Zin Dossi Clarisse Régina, Ayedoun O A Alfred Copyright (c) 2023 Hinnou Cossi Léonard, Bonou-Zin Dossi Clarisse Régina, Ayedoun O. A. Alfred Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF ORGANIC VEGETABLE PRODUCTION AMONG SELECTED ORGANIC FARMS IN BUKIDNON <p>This study assessed the economic benefits of organic vegetable farm production in terms of income from farm produce and farm production expenses. Three municipalities were covered in the province of Bukidnon: Lantapan, Malaybalay, and Manolo Fortich. Cost and return were used in the analysis of data. Results revealed that the economic returns in organic vegetable production are promising. Lettuce and herbs registered the highest return on investment among the organic vegetable grown in Bukidnon. A peso invested in lettuce production, farmers earned PhP 2.15 for large farms, PhP 1.35 for medium farms, and PhP 1.39 for small farms, respectively. On the other hand, small farm organic growers received a PhP 1.02 per peso of investment, while large farms received a PhP 1.27 per peso, or a 127% return on investment in organic herbs production. However, some of the organic vegetables grown by the respondents recorded a lower return on investment. For instance, a peso invested in organic cucumber production generated a net gain of only PhP 0.59 or ROI of 59% for small farms, PhP 0.38 or ROI of 38% for medium farms, and PhP 0.48 or ROI of 48% for large farms. This is because of the lower product yield per hectare.</p> Joemar Dayham Javier, Maria Pia M Sison Copyright (c) 2023 Joemar Dayham Javier, Maria Pia Sison Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ORGANIC FARMING METHODS USED IN THE PRODUCTION OF ORGANIC VEGETABLE <p>Organic farming is a method of crop production through the natural process instead of using chemical-based pesticides and fertilizers. This study was conducted to identify the organic farming method used in producing organic vegetables in terms of the following: soil cultivation, animal husbandry, natural pesticides, biofertilizers, composting, crop rotation, cover crops, diversified crops, mulching, and seed treatments. Key Informant Interviews and surveys were used in data gathering, and descriptive statistics were used in data analysis. Results revealed that regardless of the farm size (small, medium, large), organic vegetable growers have practiced soil cultivation techniques such as ploughing, digging, furrowing, and hoeing. Other organic vegetable production practices, for instance, homemade organic pesticides, vermicomposting, crop rotation (legume/leafy), cover crops (grass), and mulching (dry leaves, plastic mulch) are commonly practiced among the three farm types. Moreover, only a few farms have practiced animal husbandry and biofertilizer application, while seed pelleting for seed treatment was obviously practiced by large farm types. Majority of the farms have diversified crops like lettuce, cabbage, eggplant, tomato, cauliflower, bitter gourd, cucumber, and herbs. It is noteworthy that success in organic vegetable production is greatly dependent on the timely implementation of effective cultural/production practices which enable growers to minimize, or totally avoid risks, thus to improve crop yield, farmers should focus on optimizing production/cultural practices.</p> Joemar Dayham Javier, Maria Pia M Sison Copyright (c) 2023 Joemar Dayham Javier, Maria Pia M Sison Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 FACTORS AFFECTING THE CHOICE OF ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO CLIMATE EXTREMES: THE CASE OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN SOUTHERN ZAMBIA <p>This study assesses smallholder farmers' adaptation to climate extremes and its contributing factors in Zambia's southern province. The study employed primary data from 270 smallholder farmers, constituting the sample size. According to the study's findings, change crop variety was adopted by 43% of the farmers. Other strategies of adaptation that were employed include; agricultural insurance, change sow/harvest date, crop diversification and soil conservation. The findings also showed that the various adaptation strategies (agricultural insurance, change sow/harvest date, crop diversification and soil conservation), correlated positively with age, education, distance, farming experience, radio ownership, an ox, a plough, and extension source. The study makes the following recommendations; (a) enhancing the education and awareness level of farmers towards climate extreme, (b) when drafting policy, asset formation should be considered, and (c) when developing and implementing adaptation strategies, indigenous knowledge should be taken into account.</p> Kiru Sichoongwe, Jinxia Wang Copyright (c) 2023 Kiru Sichoongwe, Jinxia Wang Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 DETERMINANTS OF RICE CONSUMPTION AND HOUSEHOLD PREFERENCES IN JOS-NORTH, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA <p>The determinants of rice consumption and household preferences were analyzed. Multistage sampling was adopted and primary data analysed using descriptive statistics and OLS regression model. Socioeconomic factors affected rice consumption and household preferences. Local rice consumption was prevalent. Variables in the regression model were significant determinants of household's rice consumption. Constraints identified also affected rice consumption in the area. Price regulation, technology adoption, and policy modifications are strongly recommended.</p> Godfrey Onuwa, Alexander Dalla Copyright (c) 2023 Godfrey Onuwa, Alexander Dalla Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 IMPACTS OF THE SUSTAINABLE SOLAR MARKET GARDEN ON NATURAL RESOURCES EXPLOITATION, SOCIAL NETWORK, AND WOMEN’S INCOME IN UPPER NIGER, GUINEA <p>Climate adaptation and human pressure on natural resources are challenges for safeguarding and preserving the ecosystem and biodiversity in Upper Niger and particularly the Milo River basin. During the dry season, women’s sources of income are the exploitation of natural resources and rural exodus. The Solar Market Garden (SMG) is a way of climate adaptation by employing women to reduce human pressure on natural resources and improve their socio-economic conditions. The overall aim is to assess the environmental and socioeconomic profitability of solar irrigation practicing garden market in Banankoni village along Milo River in Upper Niger, Guinea. Data collection includes investment in solar-powered irrigation systems, demographic characteristics of women, inputs for crops, selling prices of vegetables, and the impacts of SMG. Environmental and social impacts of SMG were analyzed by comparing women’s practices before and during garden market perimeter valorization. Assessment of the Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Payback Period (PBP), and Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) was used to analyze the economic impacts of SMG. SMG stimulates social cohesion and improves women’s position in households. It is an alternative to rural exodus and deforestation by creating employment. SMG practice enhances food security diversity, nutritious value, and the microenvironment through the consumption of produced vegetables. The NPV, IRR, and PBP analysis showed that SMG is economically profitable for women in Banankoni village during dry seasons. Most women (92.4%) are willing to invest to scale up SMG which is a pathway to decrease human pressure on natural resources and improve food security, the social status of women, and their income in the climate change context.</p> Bétéo Zongo, Abdouramane Djibo Gado, Bhèlè Lamah, Patrice Toé, Thomas Dogot Copyright (c) 2023 Bétéo Zongo, Abdouramane Djibo Gado, Bhèlè Lamah, Patrice Toé, Thomas Dogot Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF BORO RICE FARMING <p>Agriculture is one of the major sectors in Bangladesh’s economy because of its contribution to gross domestic product and employment. This study investigates farm profitability in Boro rice cultivation in the Naogaon district of Bangladesh. Using simple random sampling, 45 farmers were selected randomly from 4 villages in Naogaon District. Participants went through structured interviews, and the responses were recorded. Descriptive statistics, cost-benefit analysis, and Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze this study. Ordinary least square was used as the regression technique. Empirical results obtained from production function analysis considering hired labor, pesticides, planting, harvest &amp; transport, and machinery costs positively affect Boro rice production while seed, fertilizer, plowing, and irrigation cost negatively affect Boro rice production. Boro rice cultivation was found profitable in the study area. The average per bigha net return of Boro farming was Tk. 1694.11. The study also discovered some challenges in Boro rice cultivation in that particular area. In the end, the study suggests some policies to enhance profitability in Boro rice cultivation in the Naogaon district and overcome the challenges. This study would be useful for the agricultural economics researchers and the policymakers of Bangladesh and countries with similar economies.</p> Md Asduzzaman Kiron, Md Khairul Islam Copyright (c) 2023 Md Asduzzaman Kiron, Md Khairul Islam Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 DOES COOPERATIVE MEMBERSHIP IMPROVE COCOA FARMER INCOME? EVIDENCE FROM MANKRANSO COCOA DISTRICT, GHANA <p>This study investigates whether cocoa cooperatives can significantly improve the revenue of cocoa farmers. A simple random sampling technique was adopted to draw a sample of 306 farmers from a population of 25,109 cocoa farmers in the Mankranso Cocoa District. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain primary data from the households. Descriptive statistics were used to compare revenues generated by cocoa farmers. The study employed the multiple linear regression model to assess the effect of cooperative membership on cocoa farmers’ income. The study also used the Kendall's coefficient of concordance to assess the constraints faced by cooperatives societies. Revenue comparison reveal that although the price per bag of cocoa did not vary, the income level of cooperative members was significantly higher than non-members. Cooperative membership, credit access, and extension service significantly and positively affect cocoa revenue and revenue generated from other activities. The Likert scale analysis also indicate that farmers generally agree that cooperatives play social and production roles but disagree that cooperatives play appropriate financial roles. Lack of external motivation was the main limiting constraint faced by cocoa farmers. The study recommends that extension and credit institutions should be strengthened among cocoa farmers. Importantly, the positive effect of cooperative membership raises the need to incentivize cocoa cooperatives and the need for farmers to be actively motivated to join cooperative societies.</p> Felix Nketia Boadu, Patrick Appiah, Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum, John-Eudes Andivi Bakang, Fred Nimoh Copyright (c) 2023 Felix Nketia Boadu, Patrick Appiah, Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum, John-Eudes Andivi Bakang, Fred Nimoh Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ANTECEDENT OF FARMERS’ RESPONSE TO THE COCOA REHABILITATION PROGRAMME IN THE SEFWI-BOAKO COCOA DISTRICT, GHANA <p>The paper assesses the antecedents of farmers' response to the cocoa rehabilitation program (CRP) in Sefwi-Boako District. The study adopted a quantitative method (descriptive survey design) to obtain 400 respondents through purposive and proportional sampling techniques. Face-to-face interviews with questionnaires were used to collect primary data from respondents. Descriptive (percentages, frequencies, mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (binary probit regression analysis) were used to analyze data. The results reveal that farmers had a neutral perception of the cocoa rehabilitation program and its effectiveness for cocoa production. Results from binary probit regression show that sex, educational level, cooperative membership, household size, and access to extension service were the significant factors determining farmers' participation in the cocoa rehabilitation program. The study contributes to the existing literature on the specific antecedents to farmer's participation in the Cocoa Rehabilitation Programme. If cocoa farmers are to respond to the program through participation, then these antecedents.</p> Christian Yeboah Boateng, Maxwell Asiamah, Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum, Frederick Osei Tawiah, John-Eudes Andivi Bakang Copyright (c) 2023 Christian Yeboah Boateng, Maxwell Asiamah, Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum, Frederick Osei Tawiah, John-Eudes Andivi Bakang Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSING THE PARTICIPATION OF WOMEN IN THE PRODUCTION OF LARGE CARDAMOM IN THE ILAM DISTRICT OF NEPAL <p>Participation of women in the agricultural sector has been increasing recently, though the situation is still challenging. Although women are key players in the agricultural production of developing nations, situational analysis of rural women should be more emphasized. The study aimed to analyze women's roles, the challenges they confront, and the factors that influence women's engagement in cardamom production and their access to productive assets. 102 cardamom growers from Ilam district were chosen purposively and interviewed using questionnaires from November to December 2021. The result showed that more than half percent of women had a significant role in the labor force in cardamom production, whereas 42.2% acted as helpers and 5.9% were entrepreneurs. Women's engagement in cardamom production is limited most prior to primary processing and intercultural operations. They are actively involved in various tasks in the value chain of large cardamom, but their sole role is least prioritized. Although 46.1% participated in various organizations, they had limited access to productive assets, technology, and innovation. Women's Decision in farm and non-farm activities has increased. Only 15% of women were actively involved in farm decisions, and 29% had taken decisions similar to men and women. Involvement of women in marketing was actively found in 19% of growers, while 14% practiced together. Women's participation played a crucial role in the care and maintenance of orchards and the quality of cardamom. Both men and women play a significant role in specific tasks; however, they are working together. Work burden, age, nature of farming, and farming experiences significantly impacted women's participation in large cardamom production. Agricultural awareness, technical skills, and a women-friendly agricultural production system would be supportive of enhancing the participation of women in the production of large cardamom.</p> Mahima Gotame, B K Santosh Copyright (c) 2023 Mahima Gotame, B. K. Santosh Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 MEASURING THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE, SKILLS AND ASPIRATIONS OF COCOA FARMERS TOWARDS THE USE OF PESTICIDES <p>Identifying the scope of pesticide safety by examining farmers’ knowledge, attitudes, skills and aspiration (KASA) is a key step in developing suitable training strategies. Additionally, figuring out what influence’s farmers' KASA concerning pesticides might be a crucial step in developing sustainable legislation and initiatives. Here, we tested the hypothesis that farmers’ KASA is influenced by their socio-economic characteristics. We sampled 364 cocoa farmers using the multi-stage sampling procedure and analyzed the data using descriptive and inferential statistics. For knowledge, we found sex, years of experience in cocoa farming, access to extension services, and cooperative membership to be the key drivers. The following factors have a statistically significant effect on attitude: marital status, access to extension, membership in cooperatives and participation in training programmes. Eight variables: sex, years of education, farming experience, age of the cocoa farm, access to extension, access to premium, membership in cooperatives, and participation in training programs had a significant influence on farmers’ skills in safe pesticide usage. Sex, marital status, farming experience, farm age, access to extension and the number of extension contacts are the factors that influence farmers' aspirations for the safe use of pesticides. Our study advocates for maintaining or enhancing the KASA status of cocoa farmers regarding pesticide use through consistent extension activities with cooperative groups by the Ghana Cocoa Board.</p> Angela Otiwaa Acheampong, Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum, Fred Ankuyi, Fred Nimoh, Ernest Laryea Okorley, John-Eudes Andivi Bakang, Justice Frimpong-Manso Copyright (c) 2023 Angela Otiwaa Acheampong, Enoch Kwame Tham-Agyekum, Fred Ankuyi, Fred Nimoh, Ernest Laryea Okorley, John-Eudes Andivi Bakang, Justice Frimpong-Manso Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 IDENTIFICATION OF INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS OF VILLAGE-OWNED ENTERPRISES SUMBER SEJAHTERA AT PUJON KIDUL VILLAGE, MALANG REGENCY <p>To strengthen the village economy, Village-Owned Enterprises (BUMDes) are commercial units owned and controlled by the government. To improve the local economy, BUMDes development activities have expanded in East Java. But there has been an outbreak of the COVID-19 virus that has hit the entire world, causing many negative aspects, including social, political, and economic life. One of the businesses affected by the economic downturn is the BUMDes. Aware of the internal and external environmental conditions of BUMDes became the target of research. 7S McKinsey's and PESTLE methods were used to facilitate the research. The 7S McKinsey approach is used to identify an organization's internal components, including strategy, system, structure, staff, style, skills, and shared values. PESTLE approach is used to determine how an organization affects the external economic environment, including political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental aspects. The results showed that the pandemic impacted business units in BUMDes. From the results of consumer tourism assessments, consumers or users of products or services most visitors feel that the tourism environment is very attractive, beautiful, clean, and comfortable, feel suitable to subscribe to products or services.</p> Tifa Ervita Maharani, Riyanti Isaskar, Dina Novia Priminingtyas Copyright (c) 2023 Tifa Ervita Maharani, Riyanti Isaskar, Dina Novia Priminingtyas Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 ESTABLISHMENT AND PLANNING OF ECONOMIC DESTINATIONS THROUGH FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY APPROACH TO BITING BUSINESS (STUUK SATE) IN MALANG REGENCY <p>Financial feasibility analysis related to the formation of economic destinations is carried out to formulate the required information related to resources, costs, benefits, and feasibility by what is proposed and expected. This research was conducted to determine business estimation and planning for establishing economic destinations in Malang Regency. This study uses the mixed method, namely collecting information qualitatively related to the skewer-biting business unit and quantitatively calculating the skewer-biting business's feasibility in an estimated period of 20 years. This research was conducted purposively to biting business owners in Malang Regency. Data collection was carried out by observation, interviews, documentation, and feasibility calculations. Based on the results of the analysis, it was found that within 20 years, the formation of economic destinations can be formed with the value of each eligibility consisting of a positive NPV of IDR 988,153,018, BCR has a value of &gt; 1 which is 2.04, IRR shows a value of 23% , and a payback period of 7 years during implementation.</p> Putra Irwandi, Mangku Purnomo, Sugeng Riyanto, Vi’in Ayu Pertiwi Copyright (c) 2023 Putra Irwandi, Mangku Purnomo, Sugeng Riyanto, Vi’in Ayu Pertiwi Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 RISK OF SUSTAINABILITY APPLE FARMING IN PONCOKUSUMO VILLAGE, PONCOKUSUMO SUB-DISTRICT, MALANG REGENCY <p>Sustainability is one thing that becomes the benchmark for a farming business. The concept of sustainability is based on three mutually supportive and interrelated dimensions of sustainability, namely the economic, social, and ecological. Risk management is also necessary for maintaining the sustainability of a farming business. Risk management that is implemented properly can help avoid adverse events and increase the chances of success in a business. This research was conducted in Poncokusumo village, Poncokusumo district, Malang regency. This study aimed to analyze the risk of sustainability of apple farming in Poncokusumo Village according to internal (strengths and weaknesses) and external (opportunities and threats) factors and the level of risk faced. Also, to formulate alternative mitigation to deal with it. This study used a sample of 22 apple farmers in Poncokusumo village. The data analysis technique used is the SWOT analysis and the risk assessment matrix. Based on the analysis, 5 risks of apple farming have a very high level of risk according to the risk assessment matrix, namely the quality of production, product selling price, pests, plant diseases, and climate uncertainty. According to the SWOT analysis, the risk of sustainability of apple farming faced by apple farmers in Poncokusumo village in terms of strength has a value of 1.10 and weakness of 0.12 (internal factors). The opportunity section has a value of 0.87 and a threat of 0.10 (external factors). The right strategy to overcome the risks that occur is to implement sustainable agriculture.</p> Muhammad Syafri Syafreza Hasyim, Neza Fadia Rayeza, Dina Novia Priminingtyas Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Syafri Syafreza Hasyim, Neza Fadia Rayeza, Dina Novia Priminingtyas Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000 IMPLEMENTATION OF DIGITAL MARKETING ON SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES <p>Information and communication technology advancement can transform traditional marketing into internet-based marketing. Marketing digitalization was initially more researched in large companies but was still limited in digital marketing research in SMEs. This study aims to close a knowledge gap to describe the implementation of digital marketing in SMEs and analyze the impact on SME performance. This study used 184 samples of SMEs in West Sumatra. Research variables include entrepreneur aspects, business aspects and infrastructure aspects. The data were analyzed using descriptive and binary logits. The findings show that gender and firm size significantly influence how well digital marketing is used in SMEs. Women entrepreneurs more intensively use social media for digital marketing activities, but limited resources and infrastructure cause SMEs more limited opportunities to adopt digital marketing.</p> Rini Hakimi, Widya Fitriana, Rika Hariance Copyright (c) 2023 Rini Hakimi, Widya Fitriana, Rika Hariance Mon, 31 Jul 2023 00:00:00 +0000