Arissaryadin Arissaryadin, Yayuk Yuliati, Kliwon Hidayat, Edi Dwi Dwi Cahyono
  AGRISE,Vol 22, No 2 (2022),  103-109  
Viewed : 91 times


A review of the literature reveals that most previous studies only used achievement motivation theory to assess the work motivation of agricultural extension workers in Indonesia. So far, no research questionnaire has been designed using expectancy theory. The purpose of this study is to develop a work motivation questionnaire based on expectancy theory and to test the convergent validity, discriminant validity, construct reliability and composite reliability of this questionnaire. This study drew on data from 107 people who work as agricultural extension workers in Indonesia. The questionnaire distributed via google forms was completed by all respondents. All statistical analyses were performed using JASP, version 0.16, and a confirmatory factor analysis technique was used. This study resulted in the development of a work motivation questionnaire in Indonesian. There are nine-item questions, each with three questions for construct expectancy, three questions for constructs instrumentality, and three questions for constructs valence. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that all of the question items from the expectancy theory three constructs met the convergent validity, discriminant validity, construct reliability, and composite reliability criteria. This questionnaire can be used in future research on agricultural extension workers' work motivation in Indonesia.


Expectancy theory; questionnaire; motivation; agricultural extension workers

Full Text:



Adams, J. S. (1963). Towards an understanding of inequity. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67(5), 422–436.

Agarwal, V. (2013). Investigating The Convergent Validity 0f Organizational Trust. Journal of Communication Management, 17(1), 24–39.

Al-Akeel, N & Jahangir, S. F. (2020). Relationship between Em¬ployees’ cultural background and work motivation (According to McClelland’s Need Theory of Motivation). International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(1), 156–163.

Anastas, J. W. (1999). Research Design for Social Work and the Human Services. Chapter 5, Flexible Methods: Descriptive Research (2nd ed). Columbia University Press.

Anderson, J. C. & Gerbing, D. W. (1992). Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411–423.

Arifianto, S., Satmoko, S., & Setiyawan, B. M. (2018). Pengaruh Karakteristik Penyuluh, Kondisi Kerja, Motivasi Terhadap Kinerja Penyuluh Pertanian Dan Pada Perilaku Petani Padi Di Kabupaten Rembang. Agrisocionomics: Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, 1(2), 166–180.

Bahua, I. . (2018). Peran Motivasi Dan Kinerja Penyuluh Pertanian Dalam Mengubah Perilaku Petani Jagung. Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, 14(3), 225–232.

BPS. (2020). Persentase Tenaga Kerja Informal Sektor Pertanian (Persen), 2018-2020. BPS - Statistics Indonesia. https://www.bps.go.id/indicator/6/1171/1/persentase-tenaga-kerja-informal-sektor-pertanian.html

Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. Second Edition. The Guilford Press.

Chulef, A. S., Read, S.T., & Walsh, D. A. (2001). A hierarchical taxonomy of human goals. Motivation and Emotion. Motivation and Emotion, 25(3), 191–232.

Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18(1), 105–115.

Deckers, L. (2010). Motivation: Biological, psychological, and environmental. Allyn & Bacon.

Erwina, E. (2018). Pengaruh Motivasi Terhadap Kinerja Penyuluh Pertanian Di Luwu Utara. JEMMA (Journal of Economic, Management and Accounting), 1(2), 50–56.

Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, 3rd Edition. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1998). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39–50.

Furr, R. M. & Bacharach, V. R. (2013). Psychometrics: An Introduction. SAGE Publications.

Gefen, D., Straub, D. W. & Boudreau, M.-C. (2000). ’Structural Equation Modeling and Regression: Guidelines for Research Practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4(7), 1–77.

Geldhof, G. J., Preacher, K. J., & Zyphur, M. J. (2014). Reliability estimation in a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis framework. Psychological Methods, 19(1), 72–91.

Ghozali, I. & F. (2005). Structural equation modeling, teori, konsep & aplikasi dengan program LISREL 8.54. Badan Penerbit Universitas Diponegoro.

Goss-Sampson, M. (2019). Statistical analysis in JASP: a guide for students. https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.9980744

Hair, J.P., Black, J.P., Babin, J.P., & Anderson, R. . (2019). Multivariate Data Analysis, Eighth Edition. Cengage Learning.

Hanafiah, M. A., Rasyid, W., & Purwoko, A. (2013). Hubungan karakteristik, motivasi dan kompetensi terhadap produktivitas kerja penyuluh pertanian di Kota Bengkulu. Jurnal Agrisep Universitas Bengkulu, 12(1), 69–84.

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B. (1959). The Motivation to Work (2nd ed). Wiley.

Hill, C.R., & Hughes, J. . (2007). An Examination of the Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Sch Psychol Q, 23(3), 380–406.

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling. A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.

Hubeis, A. V. S. (2007). Motivasi, kepuasan kerja dan produktivitas penyuluh pertanian lapangan: Kasus Kabupaten Sukabumi. Jurnal Penyuluhan, 3(2).

Igbaria, M., Zinatelli, N., Cragg, P., & Cavaye, A. L. M. (1997). Computing Acceptance Factors in Small Firms: A Structural Equation Model. MIS Quarterly, 21(3), 279.

Indrawati, L. (2019). Pengaruh Budaya Organisasi dan Motivasi Kerja terhadap Kinerja Pegawai pada Dinas Pertanian Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura Kabupaten Lampung Tengah. JURNAL SIMPLEX, 2(2), 23–35.

Kanfer, R. (2009). Work motivation: Identifying new useinspired research directions. Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Perspectives on Science and Practice, 2, 77–99.

Latham, G. P., & Pinder, C. C. (2005). Work Motivation Theory and Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 485–516. https://doi.org/doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.55.090902.142105

Lesmana, R. (2016). Pengaruh Motivasi Kerja Terhadap Kinerja Penyuluh Pertanian Lapangan (Ppl) Dinas Pertanian Kabupaten Bulungan Kalimantan Timur. JBTI: Jurnal Bisnis: Teori Dan Implementasi, 7(2), 251–227.

Mardikanto, T. (2009). Sistem Penyuluhan Pertanian. UNS Press.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–396.

McClelland, D. C. (1965). Toward a theory of motive acquisition. American Psychologist, 20, 321–333.

McCoach, D. B., Gable, R. K., & Madura, J. P. (2013). Instrument Development in the Affective Domain, 3rd Edition. Springer.

McGee, L. (2006). How to motivate your employees to learn. Stra¬tegic HR Review, 5(3), 1–5.

Meyers, L.S & Gamst, A. . (2006). Applied Multivariate Research: Design and Interpretation (American P). Sage publications.

Nunnally, J. C., & Berstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). NY: McGraw-Hil.

Pello, W. Y. (2019). Pengaruh Peran dan Motivasi Penyuluh Pertanian Terhadap Inovasi Teknologi Budidaya Tanaman Padi Sawah di Kecamatan Kupang Timur, Kabupaten Kupang Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Jurnal Penyuluhan, 15(2), 184–194.

Pritchard, R. D., & Ashwood, E. (2008). Managing motivation. Taylor & Francis Group.

Putri, R. K. (2019). Analisis Pengaruh Motivasi Kerja dan Kepuasan Kerja terhadap Kinerja Penyuluh Pertanian Kabupaten Serdang Bedagai. Agriprimatech, 3(1), 33–40.

Roberts, P., Priest, H., & Traynor, M. (2006). Reliability and validity in research. Nursing Standard, 20(44), 41–45.

Rosnita, R. (2016). Motivasi Dan Kinerja Penyuluh Terhadap Petani Karet Di Kabupaten Kampar. Jurnal Ilmiah Pertanian, 12(2), 47–54.

Sapnas, K. G., Zeller, R. A. (2002). Minimizing sample size when using exploratory factor analysis for measurement. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 12(2), 97–109.

Soraya, Y. G., Gayatri, S., & Prayoga, K. (2021). The Role of Extension Instructors on the Attitudes of Farmers in the Application of Inpari 32 Rice Seeds. SOCA: Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Pertanian, 15(2), 324–333. https://doi.org/10.24843/SOCA.2021.v15.i02.p08

Syahyuti. (2014). Strategic Role of Self-Help Extension Workers in the New Paradigm of Indonesian Agricultural Extension. Forum Penelitian Agro Ekonomi, 32(1), 43–58.

Viladrich, C., Angulo-Brunet, A., & Doval, E. (2017). Un Viaje Alrededor de Alfa Y Omega Para Estimar la Fiabilidad de Consistencia Interna. Anales De Psicología, 33(3), 755.

Voorhees, C. M., Brady, M. K., Calantone, R., & Ramirez, E. (2015). Discriminant Validity Testing in Marketing: An Analysis, Causes for Concern, and Proposed Remedies. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 44(1), 119–134.

Vroom, V., Porter, L., & Lawler, E. (2005). Organizational behavior. Prentice Hall.

Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. Wiley.

Wang, X., French, B. F., & Clay, P. F. (2015). Convergent and Discriminant Validity with Formative Measurement: A Mediator Perspective. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 14(1), 83–106.

Zinbarg, R. E., Revelle, W., Yovel, I., & Li, W. (2005). Cronbach’s α, Revelle’s β, and Mcdonald’s ωH: Their Relations with Each Other and Two Alternative Conceptualizations of Reliability. Psychometrika, 70(1), 123–133.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.21776/ub.agrise.2022.022.2.4


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Arissaryadin, Yayuk Yuliati, Kliwon Hidayat, Edi Dwi Cahyono

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.